Contemporary Controversies in Psychoanalytic Theory, Technique, and Their Applications
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There's a lot of differing views and disagreements among different schools, it's good to have at least a general understanding of what these different clinicians have to say. Cake Day.
BOOK REVIEW ESSAY - - The International Journal of Psychoanalysis - Wiley Online Library
Looks like you're using new Reddit on an old browser. A practical guide to practicing therapy through a modern psychoanalytic lenses? Glen Gabbard, also. Continue this thread. I appreciate the response. To engage in psychoanalytic treatment, the analyst must see the client objectively and understand the transference happening in the client and in their own experience. Speaking of transference, it is one of the many forms of resistance considered in psychoanalysis.
In psychoanalytic theory, resistance has a specific meaning: the blocking of memories from consciousness by the client Fournier, This resistance can develop by myriad reasons, some conscious and some unconscious, and can even be present in those who want to change. Transference occurs when clients redirect their emotions and feelings from one person to another, often unconsciously, and represents a resistance or obstacle between clients and their desired states healing.
It frequently occurs in treatment in the form of transference onto the therapist, in which the client applies their feelings and expectations toward another person onto the therapist. Transference is not necessarily harmful but may be a form of client resistance to treatment.
The Optimal Structure for Psychoanalytic Education Today: A Feasible Proposal?
If the client is projecting inappropriate or unrealistic expectations onto the therapist, he or she may not be entirely open to the change that treatment can provoke. Resistance to treatment can also be understood in a more general, non-psychoanalytic manner. After all, resistance to treatment is not an uncommon occurrence. Although it has frequently been used in satire and cartoons to poke fun at psychoanalysis, there are some good reasons why the couch is an important aspect of the psychoanalytic treatment experience.
Harvey Schwartz explains that having the client lie on the couch instead of sitting face-to-face with the analyst frees both participants from the social constraints established by looking at one another:. It presents 21 items that may or may not describe your personality, and you decide how well it describes you, generally on a scale from Very Inaccurate to Very Accurate.
Although you will need to visit a psychoanalyst if you want a more valid and reliable diagnosis, this test can give you an idea of where your personality lies. However, please note that you will need to make an account with Psychologist World to obtain your results. This test is composed of 48 items rated on a 5-point scale from Disagree to Agree. You can find this test here. Psychodynamic theory and psychoanalytic theory have quite a bit in common; in fact, psychoanalytic theory is a sub-theory of psychodynamic theory.
Given the relationship between the two theories, there are several core ideas and assumptions that they have in common, including:. The main distinctions between psychoanalysis and psychotherapy lie in both the goals of the treatment and the methods used to achieve those goals. Those methods vary depending on the type of psychotherapy in question. Some of the most common types include:.
Psychoanalysis also falls within this list of common types of psychotherapy, but it has a more specific goal: helping the client or patient overcome the desires and negative influences of his or her unconscious mind. The techniques used in psychoanalysis differ from most other types of psychotherapy, demonstrated by the stereotypical image of psychoanalysis of the client reclining on a couch facing away from the therapist or analyst while discussing his or her past. Psychotherapy can be undertaken with a variety of length and duration combinations, from once a month to several times a week.
On the other hand, psychoanalysis is almost always applied in an intensive manner, often requiring three to five sessions a week for several years Lee, A psychoanalyst has a particular set of skills gained from specific psychoanalysis training. While psychotherapists may practice multiple types of therapy although they often specialize in a certain type of therapy or in treating a particular mental health issue , psychoanalysts generally stick to practicing only psychoanalysis. However, the two professions both focus on helping people via talk therapy, and both use their skills to help their clients gain insight about themselves, address their mental and emotional issues, and heal.
In fact, a psychoanalyst is often considered to be a type of psychotherapist, just one who specializes in psychoanalysis. With that in mind, every psychoanalyst is also a psychotherapist, but not every psychotherapist is a psychoanalyst. Psychoanalysis has been around for more than years and has generated plenty of debate—much of it heated.
Unsurprisingly, given how long it has been practiced, there are many, many books available on the subject.
If self-help books tend not to thrill you, you might find some interesting works on psychoanalysis in other places. The impact of psychoanalysis on movies is perhaps even more salient than its impact on art and literature.
- A practical guide to practicing therapy through a modern psychoanalytic lenses? : psychoanalysis.
- Book Reviews.
- The Psychodynamic Perspective | Noba.
Although psychoanalytic theory laid the foundations for much of modern psychology, it is not without its flaws. Psychoanalysis is still practiced today, and psychoanalytic theory has been updated to fall more in line with current knowledge about human behavior and the brain, but there are many criticisms of the theory and its applications. Given these many valid criticisms of psychoanalytic theory, it is probably wise to approach Freud and his theories with a grain of salt.
Although his work formed the basis for modern psychology, that basis was lacking in empiricism and falsifiability, and his students and followers bore the larger burden of providing evidence to back the resulting psychological theories. Even though psychoanalysis is less prevalent in the treatment of mental health issues today than it was in the early s, it is important to learn about the theories since they had a giant and lasting impact on the field of psychology. Sigmund Freud is not valued today as a top-notch employer of scientifically-backed methods, and for good reason; however, his work does provide key insight.
What do you think about psychoanalysis and the theory behind it? Does any of it ring true for you personally? Have you ever tried psychoanalysis, as a patient or as an analyst?
We want to hear about your experiences. The issue of whether this specific aspect of French cultural life is an archaic remnant of times when authority arguments prevailed upon real evidence-based science, or represents a heroic resistance of intellectual complexity against reductionist globalised Anglo-Saxon pragmatism, is frequently debated. For example, the question is frequently raised, implicitly or explicitly, on some late-night cultural talk shows on French television.
Controversies can also be observed inside the French psychoanalytic movement, which is split into two factions with opposing perspectives. Owing to the seniority of these societies, their strictness in selecting and educating trainees and postgraduates, and their regular external scrutiny by the IPA, they are considered to be the more strongly established and most recognised of the French psychoanalytic schools, even if they represent only a small part of the psychoanalytic offer in the country no more than one-third of the psychoanalytic offer in private practice.
The newer and more radical faction is represented by the constellation of Lacanian schools Roudinesco, ; Since then it has gone through multiple divisions that have given birth to several Lacanian schools based around various Lacanian masters. It forms the largest contingent of French psychoanalysts, who are still not recognised by the IPA but, nevertheless, are recognised as psychoanalysts by the French administration. Strikingly, Lacanians frequently raise this stance as a resistance to the ego-psychology perspective of American psychoanalysis, which they see as a deviation from the original Freudian theory.
Originally often connected to Structuralism and Marxism, the Lacanian perspective has been particularly influential in many French social and philosophical studies. Although this debate was highly controversial between the s and the s, when psychoanalysis was at the top of the agenda, since the early s it has lost its strength as the influence of psychoanalysis has lessened. It has since been replaced by a fierce controversy between psychoanalysis and cognitive—behavioural therapy, even though the latter is much less widely disseminated and used in France than in most other high-income countries in Europe and elsewhere.
In this context, French psychiatry still claims to be characterised by its desire to remain a psychotherapeutic discipline. References to psychodynamic theories are still quite commonly made and are often mixed with a background rooted in the continental phenomenological tradition, mainly its German version. In addition, following Freud's assumption that psychoanalysis is not only a psychotherapeutic technique but also a method to investigate mental processes and a set of theories built on this method, most of the French psychiatrists working in public psychiatric wards consider that such references are useful in modern psychiatry and in the design and functioning of therapeutic programmes for severely impaired patients.
This point of view accounts for the observation that, although very few French psychiatrists think that psychoanalysis contributes to the understanding of the causes of psychiatric conditions such as psychosis or bipolar disorders, they consider that psychoanalysis is still:. For example, it is very common for many French psychiatrists to use psychoanalytic concepts to understand and elaborate attitudes within the therapeutic team that are induced by patients, applying to institutional settings the model of transference and counter-transference. There are two reasons for this approach.
- The Psychodynamic Perspective.
- What is Psychoanalysis? A Definition and History of Psychoanalytic Theory!
This is, of course, a major contribution to treatment of patients with severe psychiatric disorders in settings involving team work. Second, some teams consider that, with the use of such analytic tools, a milieu therapy may become a psychodynamic psychotherapy by itself.